About the Journal
Technology Development (Roshd-e-Fanavari) is a journal of science and technology parks & incubators which is published by Rooyesh IT incubator (RITI), affiliated to Iranian Academic Center for Education Culture and Research (ACECR).
The aim of the Journal of Technology Development (JTD) is to foster the growth of research activities among the experts of science and technology parks and incubators, It also provides a medium for mutual communication between the government, academia and the industry on the one hand, and the world science and technology community on the other.
The principal language of the journal is Persian and English.
The Journal welcomes original research contributions (previously unpublished), lessons learned and the case studies that cover various aspects of Innovation, networking, incubators management, Incubators operational models, Technology commercialization, Entrepreneurship, Science & Technology Parks, Research & Development, Business models, Marketing, Benchmarking of incubators and STPs, SMEs and Venture Capitals. The journal also includes technical virtual/real discussion panels and round tables in field of science and technology parks and incubators.
Roshd-e-Fanavari is a member of COPE and endorses its guidelines, which are available at http://www.publicationethics.org
Journal Target Community:
The main target audiences of our journal are as follows:
- Science and Technology Parks (STPs) and Incubators;
- Research institutes & Academic centers;
- Executive policy makers in the field of technology.
The aims and scopes of this journal are as follows:
1. Reflecting the best practices and view points of experts in the field of technology.
2. Providing information at national/international levels for science and technology parks and incubators.
3. Providing an environment for exchanging ideas and consultation expertise in the fields of science and technology.
4. Disseminating Experiences gathered from the results of technology commercialization.
5. Promoting innovation and entrepreneurship amongst STP related organizations and SMEs.
Ethical authorship and publication.
Principles of Ethical Publishing in the quarterly Journal of roshdefanavari:
- That the corresponding author has the approval of all other listed authors for the submission and publication of all versions of the manuscript.
- That all people who have a right to be recognized as authors have been included on the list of authors and everyone listed as an author has made an independent material contribution to the manuscript.
- That the work submitted in the manuscript is original and has not been published elsewhere and is not presently under consideration of publication by any other journal. The oral or poster presentation of parts of the work and its publishing as a single page abstract does not count as prior publication for this purpose.
- That the material in the manuscript has been acquired according to modern ethical standards and does not contain material copied from anyone else without their written permission.
- That all material which derives from prior work, including from the same authors, is properly attributed to the prior publication by proper citation.
- That the manuscript will be maintained on the servers of the Journal and held to be a valid publication by the Journal only as long as all statements in these principles remain true.
- That if any of the statements above ceases to be true the authors have a duty to notify the journal as soon as possible so that the manuscript can be withdrawn.
Scientific Misconduct and Unethical Practices
The Roshdefanavari Journal accepts the definitions of plagiarism, fabrication and falsification, Scientific misconduct and unethical acts proposed in the:
- ACECR (Academic Center of Education and culture of Research),
- Ministry of science, Research and Technology,
- of Culture and Islamic Guidance,
The list below includes, but is not limited to, the following prohibited acts:
- Plagiarism, which includes the theft or misappropriation of intellectual property and the substantial unattributed textual copying of another's work. It does not include authorship or credit disputes. The theft or misappropriation of intellectual property includes the unauthorized use of ideas or unique methods obtained via a privileged communication, such as a grant or manuscript review. Substantial unattributed textual copying of another's work is defined as the unattributed verbatim or nearly verbatim copying of sentences and paragraphs which materially misleads the ordinary reader regarding the contributions of the author. It does not include the limited use of identical or nearly identical phrases which describe a commonly used methodology or previous research. The author must show the editor written permission to quote any information learned personally from another investigator or by reviewing applications for research grants. In the introduction, and especially in the discussion of a paper, the author should cite fairly the work of others that is relevant either to the origin or to the outcome of the research described, including references to original findings and seminal works.
- Fabrication, which includes making up results and recording or reporting them, in whole or in part.
- Falsification is manipulating research, materials, equipment or processes, or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the research record. It includes the suppressing or altering of data not in agreement with one's hypothesis.
- Redundant or duplicate publication, which includes the submission of a paper, or portion thereof, that overlaps with one already submitted or published. An author may not submit reports of the same or substantially overlapping research to more than one journal at the same time, unless the author can justify it in letters to both editors.
- Submission of animal or clinical research conducted without the approval of the institutional animal care and use committee or review board.
- Honorary authorship is not permitted in The Roshdefanavari Journal. Honorary authorship is the inclusion of authors who have not met The Roshdefanavari Journal’s definition of authors as described above. An author's signature on the copyright release form submitted with the manuscript and included in the byline of the manuscript indicates that the author agrees to share responsibility and accountability for the results. Alleged misconduct against an author on a manuscript will automatically entail investigation of all co-authors.
Open Access Article
1 - Identifying and prioritizing the barriers of "technology transfer through foreign direct investment" in the petrochemical industry
seid rokn oldin mortazavinejad fariba nazariIssue 67 , Volume 17 , Summer 2021The present study aimed to identify and prioritize the barriers to technology transfer through attracting foreign direct investment in the country's petrochemical industry. This research is in terms of its purpose in terms of exploratory approach and exploratory studies Full TextThe present study aimed to identify and prioritize the barriers to technology transfer through attracting foreign direct investment in the country's petrochemical industry. This research is in terms of its purpose in terms of exploratory approach and exploratory studies. The statistical population of the present study was management and academic experts in the petrochemical industry, whose shared point of control was full knowledge of the industry. It should be noted that in the process of selecting this expert group, the "judgment sampling" method was used. Accordingly, a group of 35 experts was selected and contributed to the research. The main tools for collecting data in this research were questionnaires designed for different purposes and distributed among the statistical population. It should be noted that the first questionnaire was designed with the aim of identifying barriers and redesigned. The second questionnaire was screened and categorized identified barriers in a closed way based on the Likert five-point spectrum. Finally, a third questionnaire with the aim of determining the weights and rank of each The obstacles and paired comparisons were designed. After distributing and collecting data, the necessary analyzes were done through the software SSS, MATLAB and Excel. In this process, analyzes such as t-test (t), Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, exploratory factor analysis, and fuzzy hierarchical process analysis process were performed. The research results identified 3 main obstacles (host country barriers, guest barriers, technology barriers) and 20 barriers and ranked them. Manuscript Document
Open Access Article
2 - A Comparative Study of Approaches and Implementation of Knowledge-Based Economy and Providing suggestions for Iran
Kiarash Fartash Mohammad Reza Attarpour امیرهادی عزیزی Ali Asghar SadabadiIssue 67 , Volume 17 , Summer 2021In this paper, a comparative study of the history and different approaches of knowledge based economy as an influential concept in promoting national resilience and sustainable development in Iran and several selected countries (from developed and developing countries) Full TextIn this paper, a comparative study of the history and different approaches of knowledge based economy as an influential concept in promoting national resilience and sustainable development in Iran and several selected countries (from developed and developing countries) is discussed. In this regard, while comparing policy making in different countries to establish a knowledge-based economy, we offer lessons learned for Iran to achieve a knowledge-based economy. One of the most important points drawn from the study of countries as joint focus points is the specific and sometimes unique nature of knowledge-based economy development policies in each country with regard to the industrial and technological context of each country. Accordingly, policies that have led to the development of a knowledge-based economy in a developing or developed country do not necessarily lead to similar results in other developing or developed countries, and may even have devastating economic consequences. The next point to note is that knowledge-based economics is not limited to advanced technologies and the main factor in achieving knowledge-based economics, in addition to advanced technologies, is to focus on innovation as the axis of enhancing productivity of economic activities and enhancing competitiveness that can span a range of activities. Include low and medium technology. In addition, coordination and integration between actors, especially policymakers and government actors (institutions and organizations) at the highest levels is an essential requirement for the realization of a knowledge-based economy at national level. Manuscript Document
Open Access Article
3 - Identifying and Analyzing the Relationships of Successful Factors of Success with the Fuzzy dematel Method, Case Study: Tehran Municipality Cultural and Cultural Organization
hadi heidari gharehbolagh meysam ghaffariIssue 67 , Volume 17 , Summer 2021The critical success factors for any business are a limited number of areas where satisfactory results in those domains will ensure successful competitive performance for organizations. In fact, the critical success factors for each organization's bottleneck are achievi Full TextThe critical success factors for any business are a limited number of areas where satisfactory results in those domains will ensure successful competitive performance for organizations. In fact, the critical success factors for each organization's bottleneck are achieving strategic interests. Key strengths and merits and weaknesses in these areas are known as bottlenecks. In this paper, a method is proposed based on the theme analysis, in which the critical factors of the cultural and artistic organization of the municipality of Tehran as well as the critical factors of the success of the regions are identified and elaborated. Then, during the design of the performance management system of the Tehran Municipality's Cultural and Artistic Organization, and as a result, the need to design key performance indicators and results, critical success factors as sources for extracting these indicators were considered by the researchers of this management system. In the results obtained, the factors influencing the implementation of innovative and effective programs, the delineation of the mission and cultural goals of the organization, the human resources system and reward system, the recognition of the cultural and artistic needs of the people of Tehran, the effectiveness of internal elements, increasing the influence of people in the city of Tehran And satisfaction of the audience as the critical success factors of the cultural-artistic organization of the municipality of Tehran were identified. Finally, for the analysis of the relationships between the critical factors, the fuzzy dematel method was used. Manuscript Document
Open Access Article
4 - The Effect of Government Financial Support on Innovation of Knowledge-Based Firms: Based on Iran Innovation Survey Data
parisa sattari mohammadsadegh khayyatian yazdi farhad panahifarIssue 67 , Volume 17 , Summer 2021In today's world, the survival of any organization or company requires its ability to compete with other organizations, and since innovation is one of the most important drivers of companies' competitiveness, is able to Create dynamism, maintain the survival of organiz Full TextIn today's world, the survival of any organization or company requires its ability to compete with other organizations, and since innovation is one of the most important drivers of companies' competitiveness, is able to Create dynamism, maintain the survival of organizations; On the other hand, one of the challenges for any organization to innovate is the issue of financing, and since governments around the world have programs to support the innovation of small and medium enterprises and knowledge-based, the purpose of this paper examines the impact of government financial supports on the innovation of knowledge-based firms. To analyze this issue, the data of Iran Innovation Survey in the period from 2012 to 2014 has been used. The implementation of the National Innovation Survey Plan has been carried out by the Vice President for Science and Technology in order to promote innovative and technological capacities in the country and the transition to a knowledge-based economy. The number of knowledge-based firms in this period was 1300 firms, of which 306 firms were selected from a random sample. The method of the present study is the modeling of structural equations based on variance and SPSS and PLS software were used to analyze the data. The research findings show that government financial support has a positive effect on the process, marketing, and organizational innovations of knowledge-based firms, while these conditions do not exist for product innovation. Manuscript Document
Open Access Article
5 - Analyzing the Influential Factors of Social Media on Insurance Decision Making
Mohsen Gharakhani Seyedeh OmSalameh pourhashemiIssue 67 , Volume 17 , Summer 2021Today, social media has greatly influenced the way we receive information and news. The search for information through social media by consumers has received more attentions than ever before. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors influencing the purchasing Full TextToday, social media has greatly influenced the way we receive information and news. The search for information through social media by consumers has received more attentions than ever before. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors influencing the purchasing decision-making process in the insurance industry. In this study, the quantitative method is used and the data is collected from 223 users who are members of the pages of fans of famous actors’ celebrities and athletes on social media. An online survey of users is conducted to examine the model, followed by at least one influential person. The collected data is analyzed using SPSS 23 and Smart PLS 3.0 statistical software. The results show the effect of influencers' posts, the effect of other people's posts, the effect of the company's own posts on the intention to search for information and the effect of perceived value, perceived usefulness, brand image of the company and awareness of sales plans / marketing campaign on the intention to buy fans have a positive effect in a community who is a fan of Facebook brand pages. The study also found that the search for information has a positive effect on consumer purchasing power. The findings of this study help to understand the importance of the selected factors in influencing the decision to buy consumers in the insurance industry. Manuscript Document
Open Access Article
6 - Investigating the role of internal managers; global financial crisis and financial constraints on the relationship between financial loss and the intensity of investment in research and development spending in information technology companies
Mohsen Hassani Ali lal barIssue 67 , Volume 17 , Summer 2021The purpose of study was to investigate the role of internal managers, the global financial crisis and financial constraints on the relationship between financial loss and the intensity of investment in research and development spending in information technology compani Full TextThe purpose of study was to investigate the role of internal managers, the global financial crisis and financial constraints on the relationship between financial loss and the intensity of investment in research and development spending in information technology companies. The realm of research is the information technology companies admitted to the Tehran Stock Exchange and the domains of the period from 2006 to 2018. The present research is applied in applied research. The present research method In terms of nature, it is a descriptive study and the method is considered as a correlation in the research category.In the research data section, data were collected from sample companies by referring to financial statements and explanatory notes. Based on the systematic elimination method, 20 companies in the field of information technology were selected as a statistical sample. In order to analyze the data, the pre-test variance analysis, F lemmer test, Hausman test and J-B test were used. Then, multivariate regression test was used to confirm and reject the research hypotheses. The results showed that there is a positive relationship between the financial loss and the intensity of investment in R&D expenditures in the technology companies, plus internal managers, the global financial crisis and financial constraints on the relationship between the financial loss and the intensity of investment in research expenditures and The development of information technology companies affects; the results obtained in this study are consistent with the documentation referenced in the theoretical framework of financial research and literature. Manuscript Document
Open Access Article
7 - Qualitative identification of cultural barriers to entrepreneurship, evaluation of cultural dimensions and failure of entrepreneurs
royae afrassiabi maryam hafezian raziyeh rezayiIssue 67 , Volume 17 , Summer 2021One of the most important tools for entrepreneurial growth and development is the existence of a culture that supports entrepreneurship. In this study, the cultural barriers of entrepreneurship were identified and the continuation of entrepreneurial culture and failure Full TextOne of the most important tools for entrepreneurial growth and development is the existence of a culture that supports entrepreneurship. In this study, the cultural barriers of entrepreneurship were identified and the continuation of entrepreneurial culture and failure culture in the entrepreneurial society was evaluated. This study was conducted on the basis of qualitative and quantitative mixed research. The statistical population included the entrepreneurs of Khorasan Razavi Technical and Vocational Training Centers, which was determined due to the dispersion of the community by the purposeful sampling method of snowballs. The results in the qualitative section showed that entrepreneurs face cultural barriers such as lack of culture of creativity, rejection of failure, negative attitude to risk, distrust of women's empowerment, the existence of patriarchal culture in society and organizations and parental opposition to girls' entrepreneurial activities. Also, the results in the quantitative section showed that the rate of failure in the studied community is very high and entrepreneurs agree to give the failed people a chance again. In general, the analysis of qualitative and quantitative results shows that the cultural subsystem in the entrepreneurial ecosystem is not in a good situation and the existing culture is not supportive of entrepreneurship and even prevents the emergence of entrepreneurship in many cases. Manuscript Document
Open Access Article
1 - A Review of Knowledge-Based Economy: from the Formation to the Action; Case study: knowledge-based Economy in Iran
Abdollah Elm Khah Mahdi Sadeghi ShahdaniIssue 44 , Volume 11 , Autumn 2015Theorists have predicted the emergence of the new economic era in which knowledge is the main source of wealth and economic output. In other words, in a new era, the economy is getting away from the resource-based method and is getting close to the knowledge-based one. Full TextTheorists have predicted the emergence of the new economic era in which knowledge is the main source of wealth and economic output. In other words, in a new era, the economy is getting away from the resource-based method and is getting close to the knowledge-based one. Knowledge-based economy formed based on the production, distribution and application of knowledge and information. Therefore, investing in knowledge and knowledge-based industries got particular attentions. This paper reviews the literatures of knowledge-based economy due to its importance, and the emphasis of The Supreme Leader on special attentions of policy makers to implementation of it based on upstream documents. This article is provided according to the analytical and descriptive method based on available documents. The knowledge-based economy is addressed in the course of economic ideas, theories of knowledge-based economy, definitions, characteristics, advantages, elements, measuring indicators, policies of the knowledge-based economy in Iran, situation of Knowledge-based economy in Iran based on World Bank Index. At the end conclusion is presented. The results show that the fulfilling of the knowledge-based economy requires trained and skilled workforce, supportive government policies, making reform in society culture, efficient innovation system, indigenous knowledge, ICT, institutional and government stimulus, supporting intellectual property rights and so on. Although the World Bank 2005 report shows that there was a very significant imbalance between the indicators. By government efforts, the imbalance was declined slightly in 2007 and according to the latest World Bank report in 2012, Iran with an average 3/91 has gained the rank of 94 between 146 countries in terms of the knowledge-based economy. Manuscript Document
Open Access Article
2 - Technology Growth, Learning Change
hamed abbasi kasani gholamreza shams mourkaniIssue 54 , Volume 14 , Spring 2018The emergence of information and communication technology has opened a new window to human and has affected different aspects of his personal and social life. People effort to use ICT in many different ways by increasing their knowledge in this filed, such as using ICT Full TextThe emergence of information and communication technology has opened a new window to human and has affected different aspects of his personal and social life. People effort to use ICT in many different ways by increasing their knowledge in this filed, such as using ICT in teaching and learning methods. ICT has a very important role in teaching and learning method. In fact, the role of ICT in evolving teaching and learning method is considerable. This paper aimed to investigate the ICT impact on the learning method changes. This study is a kind of review one. The library method and the deep study of available literature in related domestic and international essays and books in ICT field, Different learning method, the effect of ICT on learning, mobile learning, distance learning, correspondence learning, electronic learning, mobile learning, and blended learning are used to gather information. Research shows that the ICT progresses cause people move toward distance, lifelong, personalized and network learning apart from time and place. Manuscript Document
Open Access Article
3 - Identify Indicators for Evaluating the Performance of Corporate Entrepreneurship
Saeed Safari Reza Abbasi Mozhgan Soltani AliabadIssue 46 , Volume 12 , Spring 2016Today, in different countries, paying particular attention to entrepreneurship and foster entrepreneurship, and create a favorable environment for its development, Considered to be as a particularly tool for economic development in developing countries. The need of orga Full TextToday, in different countries, paying particular attention to entrepreneurship and foster entrepreneurship, and create a favorable environment for its development, Considered to be as a particularly tool for economic development in developing countries. The need of organizations to the phenomenon of entrepreneurship has been led to the creation of a certain territory of this concept that is called organizational entrepreneurship. As far as organizational entrepreneurship are transformed to one of the strategic approaches in organizations, to achieve high performance and great success. Choose this approach is effective for organizations when we can evaluate the results and provide organizational goals with proper management. So, having appropriate indicators to be used for the assessment of organizational entrepreneurship is very important. Therefore, this study seeks to identify appropriate indicators to evaluate the performance organizational entrepreneurship. For this purpose, after reviewing research literature, were extracted performance evaluation indicators, and with the help of the framework of EFQM Excellence Model, were classified in 9 categories. After refining the extracted indicators and removal of repetitive indicators, the 63 index that had remained, to determining the most important indicators, was placed in the hands of experts in the format of a questionnaire and Finally, by analyzing data obtained, were identified appropriate indicators to evaluate the performance. Results of present study, presented 29 indicators in nine criteria of: Leadership, Strategy, Employee, Partnerships and Resources, Processes, Products and Services, Customer Results, Employee Results, Society Results and Key Results; as the appropriate indicators to evaluating the performance of organizational entrepreneurship. Manuscript Document
Open Access Article
4 - The Study of the Affecting Factors of Knowledge Based Firms’ Growth and Success
Mahdieh Tari Mahmod Moradi Mostafa Ebrahim pour AzbaryIssue 45 , Volume 12 , Winter 2016Nowadays, according to development of academic research in the field of high technologies, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) play a pivotal role in stimulating entrepreneurial growth and economic prosperity. So it is necessary to answer the question that what factors Full TextNowadays, according to development of academic research in the field of high technologies, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) play a pivotal role in stimulating entrepreneurial growth and economic prosperity. So it is necessary to answer the question that what factors causes this firms growth and success. The main purpose of this study is identifying the affecting factors of knowledge based firms growth and success by use of qualitative study. In terms of purpose, this study is practical and the analytical methodology was used. For this purpose semi-structured interview by using thematic analyzing is conducted. Experts whom interviewed are 20 executive managers of top and successful knowledge based firms located in Isfahan Science and Technology Town (ISTT) (Sheikh Bahai) in the last three years. The review of literature, and the results of interviews showed 3main themes that classify the affecting factors of knowledge based firms growth and success to 3 levels: individual, organizational and environmental. Based on the results, it seems that government and environmental conditions play a more important role in providing appropriate context for knowledge based firms’ growth and success. According to the interviews, view government and environmental conditions has main role in success and durability of knowledge based firms and spin-offs. Finally, based on the results, referring to existing shortcomings in the field of this firm’s activity and the main emphases of the experts, the necessary considerations for effective factors reinforcement has provided. Manuscript Document
Open Access Article
5 - Assessment of Knowledge and Ability of Knowledge Workers in Knowledge Based Organizations using Shannon Human Potential Model
Abass Afrazeh Mohammad Alimoradi Sajad GolmohamadiIssue 46 , Volume 12 , Spring 2016Creativity appearance in organizations surprisingly affects in successful solving of problems, their survival, and reaching to desirable point of competitiveness and industrial productivity. In one side industrial organizations with decentralizing approach from organiza Full TextCreativity appearance in organizations surprisingly affects in successful solving of problems, their survival, and reaching to desirable point of competitiveness and industrial productivity. In one side industrial organizations with decentralizing approach from organizational structure in the form of giving authority from managers to lower levels are going to reach to economical efficiency, creativity and finally to a higher productivity. In this article looking at Hanson Theory about decentralizing strategies, we have identified equifinality (using different technologies, methods, and resources for reaching to a creatively predetermined and great result) as a loosely strategies of decentralization. Considering researches have been done in a context of creativity and equifinality as a Decentralized Management Approach, we can see lots of researchers referred to the importance necessity of this phenomenon as a one of open system characteristics to intensify creativity, competitiveness’ prosperity, and productivity. But a comprehensive research has not been observed in related with correlation of creativity and equifinality in industrial organizations’ subject in a special case. In this research with using content Analysis method, a new category of equifinality usages in organization that causes creativity results, have been attempted to represent by surveying the past studies in relation with “decentralized management and equifinality” and “equifinality and creativity”. With revision and surveying the theories of different researchers in relation with the subject of decentralized management, equifinality and creativity, research's result subdivided in two dimensions accompanied with its components namely “equifinality and work process”, and “equifinality and structure”. Manuscript Document
Open Access Article
6 - Developing a Conceptual Model of Strategic Agility in Research and Technology Organizations (RTOs)
Reza BandarianIssue 46 , Volume 12 , Spring 2016Research and technology management requires a more comprehensive holistic approach in order to achieve coordinated strategies. New approaches should force Research and Technology Organizations (RTOs) to proactive response to changes in the environment with the rapid tec Full TextResearch and technology management requires a more comprehensive holistic approach in order to achieve coordinated strategies. New approaches should force Research and Technology Organizations (RTOs) to proactive response to changes in the environment with the rapid technological changes. RTOs by development of proactive features on their interior can achieve to a special ability called "strategic agility". Strategic agility is the ability to reform, renovate and renewal the organization, business model and strategies to cope with environmental changes. In this paper, in order to develop a comprehensive framework to achieve strategic agility in RTOs, first, all of the previous research in the field of strategic agility in the last few years have been reviewed and then adapt and adjust to the nature, characteristics and requirements of RTOs, finally the seven dimensions (key factors) and thirty one index for strategic agility in RTOs extracted and has been defined. The seven key factors are strategic sensitivity, clear vision, selecting strategic technological knowledge goals, identifying key capabilities, seizing and exploitation, continuous technological innovation and being proactive. This model is based on the combination of both internal and external organizational approach, and provides the basis for the assessment of strategic agility in RTOs. Manuscript Document
Open Access Article
7 - Investigation of Factors Affecting Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Development in Agricultural Knowledge-Based business (Case Study: Tabarestan Technology Incubator)
mohammad mehdi mardanshahiIssue 52 , Volume 13 , Autumn 2017Today, in many of developed and developing countries, the agricultural sector plays an important role in food production, employment and trade. Furthermore knowledge- based companies are as a key option to produce wealth in developing countries and the effective role of Full TextToday, in many of developed and developing countries, the agricultural sector plays an important role in food production, employment and trade. Furthermore knowledge- based companies are as a key option to produce wealth in developing countries and the effective role of information and communication technology in business development has become more evident. Therefore the purpose of this study was to Investigation of Factors Affecting Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Development in Agricultural Knowledge-Based business.This research is descriptive-survey based on the method of doing and in terms of target, is functional. The research instrument used was a questionnaire. Its validity was confirmed by a panel of experts and also its reliability was reported 0/793 (the Cronbach's alpha). The population of this study included 24 managers of Agricultural Knowledge-Based business, based at Tabarestan Technology Incubator. They were selected by Census method. Data analysis was carried out in two parts: a description and analysis was performed using the SPSS21 software. The results showed that Infrastructure factor is the most important component in the development of Information and Communication Technology. The Computers and Internet are the most important of Infrastructure factor and they have a fundamental role in developing business, especially agricultural knowledge-based businesses. Manuscript Document
Open Access Article
8 - Suitable Organizational Structure for Knowledge-Based Companies
Najaf Allahyari fard Rasoul AbbasiIssue 29 , Volume 8 , Winter 2012Knowledge-based economy is modern economy that production and distribution is based on knowledge and knowledge itself is the main source of growth and wealth creation. Knowledge-based companies are generators of knowledge-based economy. Knowledge-based companies & insti Full TextKnowledge-based economy is modern economy that production and distribution is based on knowledge and knowledge itself is the main source of growth and wealth creation. Knowledge-based companies are generators of knowledge-based economy. Knowledge-based companies & institutions are private or cooperative companies that cause synergy of science and wealth, development of knowledge-based economy, achievement of scientific and economic goals (including development and application of invention and innovation) and commercialization of research and development (including design and production of goods and services) in the high technology and high value-added production, particularly in the form of software. Knowledge-based companies can be divided into two categories: micro and macro. K-based companies have made some important features such as job creation, positive competitiveness, generation and development. Those companies are commensurate with their growing economies. Organizational structures of companies in many different companies and organizations are playing an efficient role. The types of organizations and companies determine organizational structure. In this study we reviewe organizational structures, including functional, productional, regional, Matrix, connectional, horizontal, network, associational, star, clover and Virtual. We propose a suitable pattern “network-Virtual-horizontal” for organizational structure of K-based companies. This organizational structure increases productivity in knowledge-based companies. Manuscript Document
Open Access Article
9 - Confidentiality agreement: a reliable way to prevent disclosure of IPRs owners' confidential information
Mostafa Bakhtiarvand Akram AghamohammadiIssue 48 , Volume 12 , Autumn 2016IPRs owners, especially inventors, from the creation of idea up to its commercialization are often faced with disclosure of confidential information delivered to third parties during license agreement negotiations. In fact, the main purpose of confidentiality agreements Full TextIPRs owners, especially inventors, from the creation of idea up to its commercialization are often faced with disclosure of confidential information delivered to third parties during license agreement negotiations. In fact, the main purpose of confidentiality agreements is to protect different types of IPRs including know-how, trade secrets, etc. with a view to prepare the background for proper and effective supervision and management of their exploitation. The use of non-disclosure agreements in high-tech sector, specifically for computer and internet companies is a common in license agreement negotiations. On the other hand, researchers and inventors in knowledge-based companies may be faced with challenges like disclosure of confidential information in the process of acquiring IPRs protection. The important point is the ignorance of many idea owners and inventors as to how such agreements are concluded. When delivering confidential information, non-disclosure agreement covers merely this information and is concluded for its protection before license agreement is concluded or during license agreement negotiations. Signing and entering into such agreements, without knowledge of laws and their characteristics, may cause dangerous and heavy obligations for parties. In this paper, with an analytic-descriptive approach, we define non-disclosure agreement, its necessity, function, types and common terms and conditions. The results of this paper indicate the necessity of delivering accurate and efficient information to IPRs owners regarding entering into confidentiality agreements and the need to modify the current legal structure in order to protect their rights. Manuscript Document
Open Access Article
10 - The Role of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in the Development of Economic Activities in Malaysia
Saeed KiyanPour Roya TolaeiIssue 38 , Volume 10 , Spring 2014In The world's most developed countries, policies to support small and medium enterprises in order to increase growth, income generating employment and reducing poverty in the forefront of economic or social - are governments’ important priorities. Essential characteris Full TextIn The world's most developed countries, policies to support small and medium enterprises in order to increase growth, income generating employment and reducing poverty in the forefront of economic or social - are governments’ important priorities. Essential characteristics of small and medium enterprises, including flexibility in face with market changes, rapid attainment of the activities, initiatives and high motivation of staffs and limited initial capital requirements, have caused growth, innovation and economic dynamism in transition economies of the firms. This study aimed to identify small and medium sized manufacturing firms with rapid growth, and determine their contribution to the Malaysian economy. Malaysia's Vision 2020 has planned development policies through enterprise and small business enhancement. These companies play a significant role in the economic breakthrough of Malaysia. These companies have allocated 93.8% of the operating companies in the industrial sector, 27.3% of total manufacturing production, 25.8% of value-added in production, 27.6% of the fixed assets and 38.9% of the employees of the country. Evidences suggest that these companies have major contribution in national economic development in Malaysia. Manuscript Document